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Caligula - Roman Emperor: 37-41 A.D. Authentic Ancient Roman Coins for Sale at Online Coin Shop from Trusted Coin Dealer
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Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (31 August AD 12 – 24 January AD 41), more commonly known by his agnomen Caligula, was the third Roman Emperor, reigning from 16 March 37 until his assassination on 24 January 41. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Caligula's father, Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of emperor Tiberius, was a very successful general and one of Rome's most beloved public figures. The young Gaius earned his nickname Caligula (the diminutive form of caliga) meaning "little [soldier's] boot", while accompanying his father on military campaigns in Germania. When Germanicus died in Antioch in AD 19, his mother Agrippina the Elder returned to Rome with her six children, where she became entangled in an increasingly bitter feud with Tiberius. This conflict eventually led to the destruction of her family, with Caligula as the sole male survivor. Unscathed by the deadly intrigues, and seemingly unmoved by the fate of his closest relatives, Caligula accepted the invitation to join the emperor on the island of Capri in AD 31, where Tiberius himself had withdrawn in AD 26. At the death of Tiberius, on 16 March AD 37, Caligula succeeded his great-uncle and adoptive grandfather.
There are few surviving sources on Caligula's reign, although he is described as a noble and moderate ruler during the first two years of his rule. After this, the sources focus upon his cruelty, extravagance, and sexual perversity, presenting him as an insane tyrant, leading many to believe he had neurosyphylis. While the reliability of these sources has been difficult to assess, what is known is that during his brief reign, Caligula worked to increase the authority of the princeps, possibly contemplating the introduction of an authoritarian system of an eastern type. He directed much of his attention to ambitious construction projects, notoriously luxurious dwellings for himself, but also two new aqueducts for the city of Rome (Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus). However, these are primarily associated with his successor Claudius, who brought these projects to completion. Caligula also annexed Mauretania.
On 24 January AD 41, Caligula was assassinated as the result of a conspiracy involving officers of the Praetorian Guard as well as members of the Roman Senate and of the imperial court. The conspirators' attempt to use the opportunity to restore the Roman Republic was thwarted, as the same day the Praetorian Guard declared Caligula's uncle and second cousin once removed Claudius emperor in his place.
Caligula was born in Antium, the third of six surviving children born to Germanicus and Germanicus' second cousin Agrippina the Elder. Gaius's brothers were Nero and Drusus. His sisters were Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla. Gaius was nephew to Claudius (the future emperor).
Youth and early career
As a boy of just two or three, Gaius accompanied his father, Germanicus, on campaigns in the north of Germania. The soldiers were amused that Gaius was dressed in a miniature soldier's uniform, including boots and armor. He was soon given his nickname Caligula, meaning "little (soldier's) boot" in Latin, after the small boots he wore as part of his uniform. Gaius, though, reportedly grew to dislike this nickname.
After the death of his father, Caligula lived with his mother until her relations with Tiberius deteriorated. Tiberius would not allow Agrippina to remarry for fear her husband would be a rival. Agrippina and Caligula's brother, Nero, were banished in 29 AD on charges of treason.
The adolescent Caligula was then sent to live first with his great-grandmother (and Tiberius's mother) Livia. Following Livia's death, he was sent to live with his grandmother Antonia. In 30 AD, his brother, Drusus Caesar, was imprisoned on charges of treason and his brother Nero died in exile from either starvation or suicide. Suetonius writes that after the banishment of his mother and brothers, Caligula and his sisters were nothing more than prisoners of Tiberius under the close watch of soldiers.
In 31 AD, Caligula was remanded to the personal care of Tiberius on Capri, where he lived for six years. To the surprise of many, Caligula was spared by Tiberius. According to historians, Caligula was an excellent natural actor and, recognizing danger, hid all his resentment towards Tiberius. An observer said of Caligula, "Never was there a better servant or a worse master!"
After he became Emperor, Caligula claimed to have planned to kill Tiberius with a dagger in order to avenge his mother and brother: however, having brought the weapon into Tiberius's bedroom he did not kill the Emperor but instead threw the dagger down on the floor. Supposedly Tiberius knew of this but never dared to do anything about it. Suetonius claims that Caligula was already cruel and vicious: he writes that, when Tiberius brought Caligula to Capri, his purpose was to allow Caligula to live in order that he "...prove the ruin of himself and of all men, and that he was rearing a viper for the Roman People and a Phaëton for the world."
In 33 AD, Tiberius gave Caligula an honorary quaestorship, a position he held until his rise to Emperor. Meanwhile, both Caligula's mother and his brother Drusus died in prison. Caligula was briefly married to Junia Claudilla in 33, though she died during childbirth the following year. Caligula spent time befriending the Praetorian Prefect, Naevius Sutorius Macro, an important ally. Macro spoke well of Caligula to Tiberius, attempting to quell any ill will or suspicion the emperor felt towards Caligula.
In 35 AD, Caligula was named joint heir to Tiberius's estate along with Tiberius Gemellus.
When Tiberius died on 16 March 37 AD, his estate and the titles of the Principate were left to Caligula and Tiberius's own grandson,Gemellus, who were to serve as joint heirs. Although Tiberius was 77 and on his death bed, some ancient historians still conjecture that he was murdered. Tacitus writes that the Praetorian Prefect, Macro, smothered Tiberius with a pillow to hasten Caligula's accession, much to the joy of the Roman people, while Suetonius writes that Caligula may have carried out the killing, though this is not recorded by any other ancient historian. Seneca the elder and Philo, who both wrote during Tiberius's reign, as well as Josephusrecord Tiberius as dying a natural death. Backed by Macro, Caligula had Tiberius' will nullified with regards to Gemellus on grounds of insanity, but otherwise carried out Tiberius' wishes.
Caligula accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate and entered Rome on 28 March amid a crowd that hailed him as "our baby" and "our star," among other nicknames.[ Caligula is described as the first emperor who was admired by everyone in "all the world, from the rising to the setting sun." Caligula was loved by many for being the beloved son of the popular Germanicus, and because he was not Tiberius. It was said by Suetonius that over 160,000 animals were sacrificed during three months of public rejoicing to usher in the new reign. Philo describes the first seven months of Caligula's reign as completely blissful.
Caligula's first acts were said to be generous in spirit, though many were political in nature. To gain support, he granted bonuses to those in the military including the Praetorian Guard, city troops and the army outside Italy. He destroyed Tiberius's treason papers, declared that treason trials were a thing of the past and recalled those who had been sent into exile. He helped those who had been harmed by the Imperial tax system, banished certain sexual deviants, and put on lavish spectacles for the public, such as gladiator battles. Caligula collected and brought back the bones of his mother and of his brothers and deposited their remains in the tomb of Augustus.
On October 37 A.D., Caligula fell seriously ill. He recovered from his illness soon thereafter, but many believed that the young emperor had changed into a diabolical mind as he started to kill off or exile those who were close to him or whom he saw as a serious threat. Perhaps his illness reminded him of his mortality and of the desire of others to advance into his place. He had his cousin and adopted son Tiberius Gemellus executed – an act that outraged Caligula's and Gemellus's mutual grandmother Antonia Minor. She is said to have committed suicide, although Suetonius hints that Caligula actually poisoned her. He had his father-in-law Marcus Junius Silanus and his brother-in-lawMarcus Lepidus executed as well. His uncle Claudius was spared only because Caligula kept him as a laughing stock. His favorite sisterJulia Drusilla died in 38 AD of a fever: his other two sisters, Livilla and Agrippina the Younger, were exiled. He hated the fact that he was the grandson of Agrippa, and slandered Augustus by repeating a falsehood that his mother was actually the result of an incestuous relationship between Augustus and his daughter Julia the Elder.
In AD 38, Caligula focused his attention on political and public reform. He published the accounts of public funds, which had not been made public during the reign of Tiberius. He aided those who lost property in fires, abolished certain taxes, and gave out prizes to the public at gymnastic events. He allowed new members into the equestrian and senatorial orders.
Perhaps most significantly, he restored the practice of democratic elections. Cassius Dio said that this act "though delighting the rabble, grieved the sensible, who stopped to reflect, that if the offices should fall once more into the hands of the many ... many disasters would result".
During the same year, though, Caligula was criticized for executing people without full trials and for forcing his helper Macro to commit suicide.
Financial crisis and famine
According to Cassius Dio, a financial crisis emerged in AD 39. Suetonius places the beginning of this crisis in 38. Caligula's political payments for support, generosity and extravagance had exhausted the state's treasury. Ancient historians state that Caligula began falsely accusing, fining and even killing individuals for the purpose of seizing their estates.
A number of other desperate measures by Caligula are described by historians. In order to gain funds, Caligula asked the public to lend the state money. Caligula levied taxes on lawsuits, marriage and prostitution. Caligula began auctioning the lives of the gladiators at shows. Wills that left items to Tiberius were reinterpreted to leave the items instead to Caligula. Centurions who had acquired property during plundering were forced to turn over spoils to the state.
The current and past highway commissioners were accused of incompetence and embezzlement and forced to repay money. According to Suetonius, in the first year of Caligula's reign he squandered 2,700,000,000 sesterces that Tiberius had amassed. His nephew Nero Caesar both envied and admired the fact that Gaius had run through the vast wealth Tiberius had left him in so short a time.
A brief famine of unknown size occurred, perhaps caused by this financial crisis, but according to Suetonius a result of Caligula's seizure of public carriages, according to Seneca because grain imports were disturbed by Caligula's using grain boats for a pontoon bridge.
Despite financial difficulties, Caligula embarked on a number of construction projects during his reign. Some were for the public good, while others were for himself.
Josephus describes as Caligula's greatest contribution to have improved the harbours at Rhegium and Sicily, thereby allowing grain imports from Egypt to increase. These improvements may have been made in response to the famine.
Caligula completed the temple of Augustus and the theatre of Pompey and began an amphitheatre beside the Saepta. He had the imperial palace expanded. He began the aqueducts Aqua Claudia and Anio Novus, which Pliny the Elder considered engineering marvels. He built a large racetrack known as the circus of Gaius and Nero and had an Egyptian obelisk (now known as the Vatican Obelisk) transported by sea and erected in the middle of Rome.
At Syracuse, he repaired the city walls and the temples of the gods. He had new roads built and pushed to keep roads in good condition. He had planned to rebuild the palace of Polycrates at Samos, to finish the temple of Didymaean Apollo at Ephesus and to found a city high up in the Alps. He planned to dig a canal through the Isthmus in Greece and sent a chief centurion to survey the work.
In 39, Caligula performed a spectacular stunt by ordering a temporary floating bridge to be built using ships as pontoons, stretching for over two miles from the resort of Baiae to the neighboring port of Puteoli. It was said that the bridge was to rival that of Persian King Xerxes' crossing of the Hellespont. Caligula, a man who could not swim, then proceeded to ride his favorite horse, Incitatus, across, wearing the breastplate of Alexander the Great. This act was in defiance of a prediction by Tiberius's soothsayer Thrasyllus of Mendes that Caligula had "no more chance of becoming emperor than of riding a horse across the Bay of Baiae".
Caligula had two large ships constructed for himself, which were recovered from the bottom of Lake Nemi during the dictatorship of Benito Mussolini. The ships are among the largest vessels in the ancient world. The smaller ship was designed as a temple dedicated to Diana.
The larger ship was essentially an elaborate floating palace that counted marble floors and plumbing among its amenities. Thirteen years after being raised, the ships were burned during an attack in the Second World War, and almost nothing remains of the hulls, though many archeological treasures remain intact in the museum at Lake Nemi and in the Museo Nazionale Romano (Palazzo Massimo) at Rome.
Feud with the Senate
In AD 39, relations between Caligula and the Roman Senate deteriorated. The subject of their disagreement is unknown. A number of factors, though, aggravated this feud. The Senate had become accustomed to ruling without an emperor between the departure ofTiberius for Capri in AD 26 and Caligula's accession. Additionally, Tiberius's treason trials had eliminated a number of pro-Julian senators such as Asinius Gallus.
Caligula reviewed Tiberius's records of treason trials and decided that numerous senators, based on their actions during these trials, were not trustworthy. He ordered a new set of investigations and trials. He replaced the consul and had several senators put to death. Suetonius reports that other senators were degraded by being forced to wait on him and run beside his chariot.
Soon after his break with the Senate, Caligula was met with a number of additional conspiracies against him. A conspiracy involving his brother-in-law was foiled in late 39. Soon afterwards, the governor of Germany, Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus, was executed for connections to a conspiracy.
In AD 40, Caligula expanded the Roman Empire into Mauretania and made a significant attempt at expanding into Britannia – even challenging Neptune in his campaign. The conquest of Britannia was fully realized by his successors.
Mauretania was a client kingdom of Rome ruled by Ptolemy of Mauretania. Caligula invited Ptolemy to Rome and then had him suddenly executed. Mauretania was annexed by Caligula and subsequently divided into two provinces, Mauritania Tingitana and Mauretania Caesariensis, separated by the river Malua. Pliny claims that division was the work of Caligula, but Dio states that in 42 AD an uprising took place, which was subdued by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus and Gnaeus Hosidius Geta, only after which the division took place. This confusion might mean that Caligula originally made the decision to divide the province, but the implementation was postponed because of the rebellion. The first known equestrian governor of the two provinces was one Marcus Fadius Celer Flavianus, in office in 44 AD.
Details on the Mauretanian events of 39–44 are unclear. Cassius Dio had written an entire chapter on the annexation of Mauretania by Caligula, but it is now lost. Caligula's move seemingly had a strictly personal political motive – that is, fear and jealousy of his cousin Ptolemy – and thus the expansion was not set about in response to pressing military or economic needs. However, the rebellion of Tacfarinas had shown how exposed Africa Proconsularis was to its west and how the Mauretanian client kings were unable to provide protection to the province, and it is thus possible that Caligula's expansion was a prudent response to potential future threats.
There seemed to be a northern campaign to Britannia that was aborted. This campaign is derided by ancient historians with accounts of Gauls dressed up as Germanic tribesmen at his triumph and Roman troops ordered to collect seashells as "spoils of the sea". The few primary sources disagree on what precisely occurred. Modern historians have put forward numerous theories in an attempt to explain these actions. This trip to the English Channel could have merely been a training and scouting mission. The mission may have been to accept the surrender of the British chieftain Adminius. "Seashells", or conchae in Latin, may be a metaphor for something else such as female genitalia (perhaps the troops visited brothels) or boats (perhaps they captured several small British boats).
Claims of divinity
When several kings came to Rome to pay their respects to him and argued about their nobility of descent, he cried out "Let there be one Lord, one King". In AD 40, Caligula began implementing very controversial policies that introduced religion into his political role. Caligula began appearing in public dressed as various gods and demigods such as Hercules, Mercury, Venus and Apollo. Reportedly, he began referring to himself as a god when meeting with politicians and he was referred to as Jupiter on occasion in public documents.
A sacred precinct was set apart for his worship at Miletus in the province of Asia and two temples were erected for worship of him in Rome. The Temple of Castor and Pollux on the Forum was linked directly to the Imperial residence on the Palatine and dedicated to Caligula. He would appear here on occasion and present himself as a god to the public. Caligula had the heads removed from various statues of gods and replaced with his own in various temples. It is said that he wished to be worshipped as Neos Helios, the New Sun. Indeed, he was represented as a sun god on Egyptian coins.
Caligula's religious policy was a departure from that of his predecessors. According to Cassius Dio, living emperors could be worshipped as divine in the east and dead Emperors could be worshipped as divine in Rome. Augustus had the public worship his spirit on occasion, but Dio describes this as an extreme act that emperors generally shied away from. Caligula took things a step further and had those in Rome, including Senators, worship him as a physical living god.
Caligula needed to quell several riots and conspiracies in the eastern territories during his reign. Aiding him in his actions was his good friend,Herod Agrippa, who became governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis after Caligula became emperor in AD 37.
The cause of tensions in the east was complicated, involving the spread of Greek culture, Roman law and the rights of Jews.
Caligula did not trust the prefect of Egypt, Aulus Avilius Flaccus. Flaccus had been loyal to Tiberius, had conspired against Caligula's mother and had connections with Egyptian separatists. In AD 38, Caligula sent Agrippa to Alexandria unannounced to check on Flaccus. According to Philo, the visit was met with jeers from the Greek population who saw Agrippa as the king of the Jews. Flaccus tried to placate both the Greek population and Caligula by having statues of the emperor placed in Jewish synagogues. As a result, riots broke out in the city. Caligula responded by removing Flaccus from his position and executing him.
In AD 39, Agrippa accused Herod Antipas, the tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, of planning a rebellion against Roman rule with the help of Parthia. Herod Antipas confessed and Caligula exiled him. Agrippa was rewarded with his territories.
Riots again erupted in Alexandria in AD 40 between Jews and Greeks. Jews were accused of not honoring the emperor. Disputes occurred in the city of Jamnia. Jews were angered by the erection of a clay altar and destroyed it. In response, Caligula ordered the erection of a statue of himself in the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem, a demand in conflict with Jewish monotheism. In this context, Philo wrote that Caligula "regarded the Jews with most especial suspicion, as if they were the only persons who cherished wishes opposed to his".
The governor of Syria, Publius Petronius, fearing civil war if the order were carried out, delayed implementing it for nearly a year. Agrippa finally convinced Caligula to reverse the order.
Surviving sources present a number of stories about Caligula that illustrate cruelty and insanity.
The contemporary sources, Philo of Alexandria and Seneca the Younger, describe an insane emperor who was self-absorbed, angry, killed on a whim, and who indulged in too much spending and sex. He is accused of sleeping with other men's wives and bragging about it, killing for mere amusement, deliberately wasting money on his bridge, causing starvation, and wanting a statue of himself erected in the Temple of Jerusalem for his worship. Once, at some games at which he was presiding, he ordered his guards to throw an entire section of the crowd into the arena during intermission to be eaten by animals because there were no criminals to be prosecuted and he was bored.
While repeating the earlier stories, the later sources of Suetonius and Cassius Dio provide additional tales of insanity. They accuse Caligula of incest with his sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla, and Livilla, and say he prostituted them to other men. They state he sent troops on illogical military exercises, turned the palace into a brothel, and, most famously, planned or promised to make his horse, Incitatus, a consul, and actually appointed him a priest.
The validity of these accounts is debatable. In Roman political culture, insanity and sexual perversity were often presented hand-in-hand with poor government.
Assassination and aftermath
Caligula's actions as emperor were described as being especially harsh to the Senate, the nobility and the equestrian order.According to Josephus, these actions led to several failed conspiracies against Caligula. Eventually, a successful murder was planned by officers within the Praetorian Guard led by Cassius Chaerea. The plot is described as having been planned by three men, but many in the Senate, army and equestrian order were said to have been informed of it and involved in it.
According to Josephus, Chaerea had political motivations for the assassination. Suetonius sees the motive in Caligula calling Chaerea derogatory names. Caligula considered Chaerea effeminate because of a weak voice and for not being firm with tax collection. Caligula would mock Chaerea with names like "Priapus" and "Venus".
On 24 January 41, Chaerea and other guardsmen accosted Caligula while he was addressing an acting troupe of young men during a series of games and dramatics held for the Divine Augustus. Details on the events vary somewhat from source to source, but they agree that Chaerea was first to stab Caligula, followed by a number of conspirators. Suetonius records that Caligula's death was similar to that of Julius Caesar. He states that both the elder Gaius Julius Caesar (Julius Caesar) and the younger Gaius Julius Caesar (Caligula) were stabbed 30 times by conspirators led by a man named Cassius (Cassius Longinus and Cassius Chaerea).
The cryptoporticus (underground corridor) where this event would have taken place was discovered beneath the imperial palaces on the Palatine Hill. By the time Caligula's loyal Germanic guard responded, the emperor was already dead. The Germanic guard, stricken with grief and rage, responded with a rampaging attack on the assassins, conspirators, innocent senators and bystanders alike.
The Senate attempted to use Caligula's death as an opportunity to restore the Republic. Chaerea attempted to convince the military to support the Senate. The military, though, remained loyal to the office of the emperor. The grieving Roman people assembled and demanded that Caligula's murderers be brought to justice.[ Uncomfortable with lingering imperial support, the assassins sought out and stabbed Caligula's wife, Caesonia, and killed their young daughter, Julia Drusilla, by smashing her head against a wall. They were unable to reach Caligula's uncle, Claudius, who was spirited out of the city, after being found by a soldier, to the nearby Praetorian camp.
Claudius became emperor after procuring the support of the Praetorian guard and ordered the execution of Chaerea and any other known conspirators involved in the death of Caligula. According to Suetonius, Caligula's body was placed under turf until it was burned and entombed by his sisters. He was buried within the Mausoleum of Augustus; in 410 during the Sack of Rome the tomb's ashes were scattered.
The history of Caligula's reign is extremely problematic as only two sources contemporary with Caligula have survived — the works of Philo andSeneca. Philo's works, On the Embassy to Gaius and Flaccus, give some details on Caligula's early reign, but mostly focus on events surrounding the Jewish population in Judea and Egypt with whom he sympathizes. Seneca's various works give mostly scattered anecdotes on Caligula's personality. Seneca was almost put to death by Caligula in AD 39 likely due to his associations with conspirators.
At one time, there were detailed contemporaneous histories on Caligula, but they are now lost. Additionally, the historians who wrote them are described as biased, either overly critical or praising of Caligula. Nonetheless, these lost primary sources, along with the works of Seneca and Philo, were the basis of surviving secondary and tertiary histories on Caligula written by the next generations of historians. A few of the contemporaneous historians are known by name. Fabius Rusticus and Cluvius Rufus both wrote condemning histories on Caligula that are now lost. Fabius Rusticus was a friend of Seneca who was known for historical embellishment and misrepresentation. Cluvius Rufus was a senator involved in the assassination of Caligula.
Caligula's sister, Agrippina the Younger, wrote an autobiography that certainly included a detailed explanation of Caligula's reign, but it too is lost. Agrippina was banished by Caligula for her connection to Marcus Lepidus, who conspired against Caligula. The inheritance of Nero, Agrippina's son and the future emperor, was seized by Caligula. Gaetulicus, a poet, produced a number of flattering writings about Caligula, but they too are lost.
The bulk of what is known of Caligula comes from Suetonius and Cassius Dio. Suetonius wrote his history on Caligula 80 years after his death, while Cassius Dio wrote his history over 180 years after Caligula's death. Cassius Dio's work is invaluable because it alone gives a loose chronology of Caligula's reign.
A handful of other sources add a limited perspective on Caligula. Josephus gives a detailed description of Caligula's assassination. Tacitus provides some information on Caligula's life under Tiberius. In a now lost portion of his Annals, Tacitus gave a detailed history of Caligula. Pliny the Elder's Natural History has a few brief references to Caligula.
There are few surviving sources on Caligula and no surviving source paints Caligula in a favorable light. The paucity of sources has resulted in significant gaps in the reign of Caligula. Little is written on the first two years of Caligula's reign. Additionally, there are only limited details on later significant events, such as the annexation of Mauretania, Caligula's military actions in Britannia, and his feud with the Roman Senate.
All surviving sources, except Pliny the Elder, characterize Caligula as insane. However, it is not known whether they are speaking figuratively or literally. Additionally, given Caligula's unpopularity among the surviving sources, it is difficult to separate fact from fiction. Recent sources are divided in attempting to ascribe a medical reason for his behavior, citing as possibilities encephalitis, epilepsy or meningitis. The question of whether or not Caligula was insane remains unanswered.
Philo of Alexandria, Josephus and Seneca state that Caligula was insane, but describe this madness as a personality trait that came through experience. Seneca states that Caligula became arrogant, angry and insulting once becoming emperor and uses his personality flaws as examples his readers can learn from. According to Josephus, power made Caligula incredibly conceited and led him to think he was a god. Philo of Alexandria reports that Caligula became ruthless after nearly dying of an illness in the eighth month of his reign in AD 37. Juvenal reports he was given a magic potion that drove him insane.
Suetonius said that Caligula suffered from "falling sickness", or epilepsy, when he was young. Modern historians have theorized that Caligula lived with a daily fear of seizures. Despite swimming being a part of imperial education, Caligula could not swim. Epileptics are encouraged not to swim in open waters because unexpected fits in such difficult rescue circumstances can be fatal. Additionally, Caligula reportedly talked to the full moon. Epilepsy was long associated with the moon.
Some modern historians think that Caligula suffered from hyperthyroidism. This diagnosis is mainly attributed to Caligula's irritability and his "stare" as described by Pliny the Elder.
Possible rediscovery of burial site
On 17 January 2011, police in Nemi, Italy, announced that they believed they had discovered the site of Caligula's burial, after arresting a thief caught smuggling a statue which they believed to be of the emperor. The claim has been met with scepticism by Cambridge historian Mary Beard.
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AUGUSTUS Victory Over Brutus Cassius Killers of Julius Caesar Roman Coin i33670
TIBERIUS & LIVIA wife of Augustus 22AD Thessalonica Ancient Roman Coin i21957
OTACILIA SEVERA 244AD Ancient Roman Coin HYGEIA Salus Serpent Very rare i20496
CARACALLA ASCLEPIUS, HYGEIA & TELESPHORUS 198AD Ancient Roman Coin i21284
CLAUDIUS & ANTONIA Mark Antony daughter 41AD RARE Ancient Roman Coin i28340
JULIA MAMAEA 222AD Nicaea Bithynia Legionary Standards Ancient Roman Coin i27463
PHILIP I the Arab 244AD NUDE HERCULES & ANTEUS Medallic HUGE Roman Coin i28336
TITUS & DOMITIAN CAESARS 77AD Stobi Macedonia Roman Coin Dionysus Temple i28335
Jesus Christ Birth Magii Azes II on Horse 35BC Ancient Silver Greek Coin i35918
Nicephorus III Botaneiates FIRST CRUSADE Byzantine COIN Christ Cross i36281
CONSTANTINE I the GREAT 347AD Ancient Roman Coin Christian Deification i35592
CONSTANTIUS I Constantine the Great Dad Ancient Roman Coin Africa Lion i14697
ARCADIUS 404AD Rare Authentic Original Ancient Roman Coin Cross i30343
CONSTANTINE I the GREAT Romulus Remus Ancient Roman Coin WOLF i24786
THEODOSIUS II 425AD Ancient Roman Coin Cross within wreath of success i32890
CRISPUS son of Constantine I the Great London mint Ancient Coin ALTAR i20965
ARCADIUS 404AD Rare Authentic Original Ancient Roman Coin Cross i33092
CONSTANTINE I the GREAT Romulus Remus Silvered Ancient Roman Coin WOLF i24793
THEODOSIUS II 425AD Ancient Roman Coin Cross within wreath of success i32515
Helena Saint Mother of Constantine the Great 326AD Roman Coin Security i30293
CONSTANTINE I the GREAT 322AD Aquileia Ancient Roman Coin Wreath i30296
CONSTANTINE I the Great 337AD Heaven CHARIOT Ancient Roman Coin Horses i24343
ETENNA Pisidia 1st CentBC Young Men Rescue Girl from Snake God Greek Coin i27510
NAPAT King of Persis & Father Very Rare Ancient Silver Greek Coin i23760
Lete Silver Ancient Greek Coin Nude Satyr Pan & Dionysus companion i28597
Thraco-Macedonian Tribes 450BC Horse Genuine Ancient Silver Greek Coin i22386
KALLATIS 281BC Hercules Bow Club Authentic Ancient Silver Greek Coin i30025
Caligula 37AD Rome mint HUGE Ancient Roman Coin VESTA Home Family RARE i34176
GALLIENUS son of Valerian I Silver Ancient Roman Coin ROMA with Victory i26664
PHILIP I the ARAB 247AD Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin ROMA w Victory i26748
SALONINA daughter in law of Valerian I Billon Silver Ancient Roman Coin i21573
GELA in Sicily Bull w man head Horse Very Rare Ancient Silver Greek Coin i22400
CLEOPATRA VII & MARK ANTONY Portraits 36BC Chalcis Ancient Roman Coin i31195
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS 193AD Emesa mint Ancient Silver Roman Coin Victory i26614
Severus Alexander Crisis of 3rd Century Silver Ancient Roman Coin i30207
SINOPE colony of Miletos 415BC Eagle Nymph Ancient Silver Greek Coin i31179
Philip II Alexander the Great Dad OLYMPIC GAMES Ancient Greek Coin Horse i18153
Philip II Alexander the Great Dad OLYMPIC GAMES Ancient Greek Coin Horse i24373
MESEMBRIA in Thrace 450BC Helmet & Wheel Ancient Silver Greek Coin RARE i22948
DYNASTS of LYCIA. 450BC Athena & Apollo Ancient Silver Greek Coin i26973
PTOLEMY IV Huge 41mm Greek Egyptian King Rare Ancient Coin Zeus EAGLE i20922
ELIS - City of Birth of OLYMPIC GAMES 196BC Ancient Silver Greek Coin i31878
Chersonesos in Thrace 400BC Lion & Incuse Rare Ancient Silver Greek Coin i26122
PHILIP II Alexander the Great Dad OLYMPIC GAMES Silver Greek Coin i31177
MITHRA on Kingdom of Persis Ardaxsir (Artaxerxes) III Silver "Greek" Coin i32691
IVAN ALEXANDER Czar King 1331AD Ancient Medieval Bulgarian Coin RARITY 9 i20771
MARK ANTONY& Cleopatra Legion IX Battle Actium Augustus Silver Roman Coin i30153
Himera in Sicily 420BC Ancient Greek Coin Naked youth on goat Nike Rare i28410
Histiaia Euboia Nymph 300BC Authentic Ancient Silver Greek Coin Galley i28263
SINOPE colony of Miletos 480BC RARE Ancient Silver Greek Coin Eagle head i31163
PHERAE (Pherai) Greek City in Thessaly 404BC Ennodia Lion Ancient Coin i28343
Opus LOKRIS OPUNTIA 369BC Nude Ajax Sword Ancient Silver Greek Coin RARE i31883
KIOS in BITHYNIA 350BC Apollo Galley Ship Ancient Silver Greek Coin RARE i31897
Thasos Silver Ancient Greek Coin Nude Satyr Pan & Dionysus companion i28595
Fibula 100BC Quality Ancient SILVER Roman Clothes Fastener ARTIFACT i24184
Washington American Revolution Bicentennial HUGE Medal Liberty Tree i32049
KINGS of PERSIS 1st Century AD Silver Obol Ancient Coin i32036
Latin Empire 1204AD Ancient Byzantine Coin Christ Archangel Michael i30699
JUSTIN II & Queen Sophia Rare HUGE Authentic Ancient Byzantine Coin i19209
JOHN II Comnenus 1118AD Ancient Rare BYZANTINE Coin JESUS CHRIST i22669
Romanus IV, Diogenes 1068AD Ancient Byzantine Coin Christ Virgin Orans i35797
GORDIAN III Hadrianopolis Hygeia Salus Medicine Health Roman Coin Rare i21294
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS 193AD Pautalia COILED SERPENT Ancient Roman Coin i21932
JESUS CHRIST w GOSPELS 1028AD Rare HUGE Ancient Byzantine Coin CROSS i25162
JESUS CHRIST Basil II & Constantine VIII 1025AD ClassA2 Byzantine Coin i34594
SALONINA daughter in law of Valerian I Dium Macedonia Athena Roman Coin i22246
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