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Galerius Roman Emperor 305-311AD Biography And Authentic Ancient Coins for Sale and Investment
Own certified authentic ancient coins of Galerius Roman Emperor. You can explore a selection of other emperor and empress coins by visiting the chronological list of every emperor and empress of the Roman empire. Ancient coins make a great gift, investment and a teaching aid to learning history. It is important to deal with trusted coin dealers, that is why this is the best place for you.
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Galerius - Roman Emperor: 305-311 A.D. -
Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. He was the most prominent of the military gods that were worshipped by the Roman legions. The martial Romans considered him second in importance only to Jupiter (their main god). His festivals were held in March (named for him) and October. As the word Mars has no Indo-European derivation, it is most likely the Latinised form of the agricultural Etruscan god Maris. Initially Mars was a Roman god of fertility and vegetation and a protector of cattle, fields and boundaries and farmers. In the second century BC, the conservative Cato the Elder advised "For your cattle, for them to be healthy, make this sacrifice to Mars Silvanus you must make this sacrifice each year". Mars later became associated with battle as the growing Roman Empire began to expand, and he came to be identified with the Greek god Ares. Unlike his Greek counterpart, Mars was generally revered and rivaled Jupiter as the most honoured god. He was also the tutelary god of the city of Rome. As he was regarded as the legendary father of Rome's founder, Romulus, it was believed that all Romans were descendants of Mars.
Galerius Maximianus (ca. 260 – late April or early May 311), formally Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was Roman Emperor from 305 to 311.
Galerius was born on a small farm estate, on the site where he later built his palace, Felix Romuliana. His father was a Thracian and his mother Romula was a Dacian woman, who left Dacia because of the Carpians' attacks. He originally followed his father's occupation, that of a herdsman, where he got his surname of Armentarius (Latin: armentum, herd). He served with distinction as a soldier under Emperors Aurelian and Probus, and in 293 at the establishment of the Tetrarchy, was designated Caesar along with Constantius Chlorus, receiving in marriage Diocletian's daughter Valeria (later known as Galeria Valeria), and at the same time being entrusted with the care of the Illyrian provinces. Soon after his appointment, Galerius would be dispatched to Egypt to fight the rebellious cities Busiris and Coptos.
War with Persia
In 294, Narseh, a son of Shapur who had been passed over for the Sassanid succession, came into power in Persia. Narseh probably moved to eliminate Bahram III, a young man installed by a noble named Vahunam in the wake of Bahram II's death in 293. In early 294, Narseh sent Diocletian the customary package of gifts, but within Persia he was destroying every trace of his immediate predecessors, erasing their names from public monuments. He sought to identify himself with the warlike reigns of Ardashir (r. 226–41) and Shapur (r. 241–72), the same Shapur who had sacked Roman Antioch, skinned the Emperor Valerian (r. 253–260) to decorate his war temple.
In 295 or 296, Narseh declared war on Rome. He appears to have first invaded western Armenia, retaking the lands delivered to Tiridates in the peace of 287. He would occupy the lands there until the following year. Narseh then moved south into Roman Mesopotamia, where he inflicted a severe defeat on Galerius, then commander of the Eastern forces, in the region between Carrhae (Harran, Turkey) and Callinicum (Ar-Raqqah, Syria). Diocletian may or may not have been present at the battle, but would present himself soon afterwards at Antioch, where the official version of events was made clear: Galerius was to take all the blame for the affair. In Antioch, Diocletian forced Galerius to walk a mile in advance of his imperial cart while still clad in the purple robes of an emperor. The message conveyed was clear: the loss at Carrhae was not due to the failings of the empire's soldiers, but due to the failings of their commander, and Galerius' failures would not be accepted. (It is also possible that Galerius' position at the head of the caravan was merely the conventional organization of an imperial progression, designed to show a Caesar's deference to his Augustus.)
Galerius had been reinforced, probably in the spring of 298, by a new contingent collected from the empire's Danubian holdings. Narseh did not advance from Armenia and Mesopotamia, leaving Galerius to lead the offensive in 298 with an attack on northern Mesopotamia via Armenia. Diocletian may or may not have been present to assist the campaign. Narseh retreated to Armenia to fight Galerius' force, to Narseh's disadvantage: the rugged Armenian terrain was favorable to Roman infantry, but unfavorable to Sassanid cavalry. Local aid gave Galerius the advantage of surprise over the Persian forces, and, in two successive battles, Galerius secured victories over Narseh.
During the second encounter, Roman forces seized Narseh's camp, his treasury, his harem, and his wife along with it. Narseh's wife would live out the remainder of the war in Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, serving to the Persians as a constant reminder of Roman victory. Galerius advanced into Media and Adiabene, winning continuous victories, most prominently near Erzurum, and securing Nisibis (Nusaybin, Turkey) before October 1, 298. He moved down the Tigris, taking Ctesiphon, and gazing onwards to the ruins of Babylon before returning to Roman territory via the Euphrates.
Narseh had previously sent an ambassador to Galerius to plead for the return of his wives and children, but Galerius had dismissed this ambassador, reminding him of how Shapur had treated Valerian. The Romans, in any case, treated Narseh's captured family with tact, perhaps seeking to evoke comparisons to Alexander and his beneficent conduct towards the family of Darius III. Peace negotiations began in the spring of 299, with both Diocletian and Galerius presiding. Their magister memoriae (secretary) Sicorius Probus was sent to Narseh to present terms.
The conditions of the peace were heavy: Persia would give up territory to Rome, making the Tigris the boundary between the two empires. Further terms specified that Armenia was returned to Roman domination, with the fort of Ziatha as its border; Caucasian Iberia would pay allegiance to Rome under a Roman appointee; Nisibis, now under Roman rule, would become the sole conduit for trade between Persia and Rome; and Rome would exercise control over the five satrapies between the Tigris and Armenia: Ingilene, Sophanene (Sophene), Arzanene (Aghdznik), Corduene, and Zabdicene (near modern Hakkâri, Turkey). These regions included the passage of the Tigris through the Anti-Taurus range; the Bitlis pass, the quickest southerly route into Persian Armenia; and access to the Tur Abdin plateau. With these territories, Rome would have an advance station north of Ctesiphon, and would be able to slow any future advance of Persian forces through the region. Under the terms of the peace Tiridates would regain both his throne and the entirety of his ancestral claim, and Rome would secure a wide zone of cultural influence in the region. The fact that the empire was able to sustain such constant warfare on so many fronts has been taken as a sign of the essential efficacy of the Diocletianic system and the goodwill of the army towards the tetrarchic enterprise.
Persecution of Christians
Christians had lived in peace during most of the rule of Diocletian. The persecutions that began with an edict of February 24, 303, were credited by Christians to Galerius' work, as he was a fierce advocate of the old ways and old gods. Christian houses of assembly were destroyed, for fear of sedition in secret gatherings.
Diocletian was not anti-Christian during the first part of his reign, and historians have claimed that Galerius decided to prod him into persecuting them by secretly burning the Imperial Palace and blaming it on Christian saboteurs. Regardless of who was at fault for the fire, Diocletian's rage was aroused and he began one of the last and greatest Christian persecutions in the history of the Roman Empire.
It was at the insistence of Galerius that the last edicts of persecution against the Christians were published, beginning on February 24, 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration, issued from Nicomedia in April 311, apparently during his last bout of illness, in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine (see Edict of Toleration by Galerius). Lactantius gives the text of the edict in his moralized chronicle of the bad ends to which all the persecutors came, De Mortibus Persecutorum ("On the Deaths of the Persecutors", chapters 34, 35). This marked the end of official persecution of Christians.
Rule as Augustus
After the elevation of Constantius I and Galerius to the rank of Augusti, two new Caesars were required to supply their place, and to complete the system of the Imperial government. The two persons whom Galerius promoted to the rank of Caesar were very much Galerius' creatures, and he hoped to enhance his authority throughout the empire with their elevation.
First was Maximinus Daia, whose mother was Galerius' sister. An inexperienced youth with little formal education, he was invested with the purple, exalted to the dignity of Caesar, and assigned the command of Egypt and Syria. Second was Severus, Galerius' comrade in arms; he was sent to Milan to receive the possession of Italy and Africa. According to the forms of the constitution, Severus acknowledged the supremacy of the western emperor; but he was absolutely devoted to the commands of his benefactor Galerius, who, reserving to himself the intermediate countries from the confines of Italy to those of Syria, firmly established his power over three quarters of the empire.
His hopes were dashed when his colleague Constantius died at York in 306 and the legions elevated his son Constantine to the position of Augustus. Galerius only discovered this when he received a letter from Constantine, who informed him of his father's death, modestly asserted his natural claim to the succession, and respectfully lamented that the enthusiastic violence of his troops had not allowed him to obtain the Imperial purple in the regular and constitutional manner. The first emotions of Galerius were those of surprise, disappointment, and rage; and, as he could seldom restrain his passions, he threatened to burn both the letter and the messenger.
But when he had time to reconsider his position, he inevitably saw that his chances of winning a war against Constantine was doubtful at best, especially given that he was well aware of Constantine’s strengths as Constantine had been his guest for some time at Nicomedia, not to mention the attachment of the troops to him. Therefore, without either condemning or ratifying the choice of the British army, Galerius accepted the son of his deceased colleague as the ruler of the provinces beyond the Alps; but he gave him only the title of Caesar, and the fourth rank among the Roman princes, whilst he conferred the vacant place of Augustus on his favourite Severus.
The ambitious spirit of Galerius was only just gotten over this disappointment when he beheld the unexpected loss of Italy to Maxentius. Galerius’ need for additional revenue had persuaded him to make a very strict and rigorous examination of the property of his subjects for the purpose of a general taxation. A very minute survey was taken of their real estates; and, wherever there was the slightest suspicion of concealment, torture was used to obtain a sincere declaration of their personal wealth. Italy had traditionally been exempt from any form of taxation, but Galerius ignored this precedent, and the officers of the revenue already began to number the Roman people, and to settle the proportion of the new taxes. Italy began to murmur against this indignity and Maxentius used this sentiment to declare himself emperor in Italy, to the fury of Galerius. Therefore, Galerius ordered his colleague Severus to immediately march to Rome, in the full confidence that, by his unexpected arrival, he would easily suppress the rebellion. Severus was quickly captured and executed by Maximian, who had once again been elevated to the rank of co-emperor, this time by his son Maxentius.
The importance of the occasion needed the presence and abilities of Galerius. At the head of a powerful army collected from Illyricum and the East, he entered Italy, determined to revenge the death of Severus and to punish the rebellious Romans. But due to the skill of Maximian, Galerius found every place hostile, fortified, and inaccessible; and though he forced his way as far as Narni, within sixty miles of Rome, his control in Italy was confined to the narrow limits of his camp.
Seeing that he was facing ever-greater difficulties, Galerius made the first advances towards reconciliation, and dispatched two officers to tempt the Romans by the offer of a conference, and the declaration of his paternal regard for Maxentius, reminding them that they would obtain much more from his willing generosity that anything that might have been obtained through a military campaign. The offers of Galerius were rejected with firmness, his friendship refused, and it was not long before he discovered that unless he retreated, he might have succumbed to the fate of Severus. It was not a moment too soon; large monetary gifts from Maxentius to his soldiers had corrupted the fidelity of the Illyrian legions. When Galerius finally began his withdrawal from Italy, it was only with great difficulty that he managed to stop his veterans deserting him.
In frustration, Galerius allowed his legions to ravage the countryside as they passed northwards. Maxentius declined to make a general engagement.
With so many emperors now in existence, in 308 Galerius, together with the retired emperor Diocletian and the now active Maximian, called an imperial 'conference' at Carnuntum on the River Danube to rectify the situation and bring some order back into the imperial government. Here it was agreed that Galerius’ long-time friend and military companion Licinius, who had been entrusted by Galerius with the defense of the Danube while Galerius was in Italy, would become Augustus in the West, with Constantine as his Caesar. In the East, Galerius remained Augustus and Maximinus remained his Caesar. Maximian was to retire, and Maxentius was declared a usurper.
Galerius’ plan soon failed. The news of Licinius’ promotion was no sooner carried into the East, than Maximinus, who governed, the provinces of Egypt and Syria, rejected his position as Caesar, and, notwithstanding the prayers as well as arguments of Galerius, exacted, the equal title of Augustus. For the first, and indeed for the last time, six emperors administered the Roman world. And though the opposition of interest, and the memory of a recent war, divided the empire into two great hostile powers, their mutual fears and the fading authority of Galerius produced an apparent tranquility in the imperial government.
The last years of Galerius saw him relinquishing his aspirations towards being the supreme emperor of the empire, though he managed to retain the position of first among equals. He spent the remainder of his years enjoying himself and ordering some important public works, such as discharging into the Danube the superfluous waters of Lake Pelso, and the cutting down the immense forests that encompassed it.
Just some of recently listed authentic ancient
coins and artifacts from a selection of thousands of items:
SYRACUSE Sicily 212BC under ROMANS Ancient Greek Coin Serapis Isis i28402
THEODOSIUS II 425AD Ancient Roman Coin Cross within wreath of success i33316
HANNIBALIANUS newphew CONSTANTINE the Great Euphrates Ancient Coin 335AD i22449
Ptolemy IV Philopater Egypt Kingdom i31219 221BC HUGE Ancient Greek Coin Zeus
GALLIENUS son of Valerian I Ancient Roman Coin Peacefull Mars i34734
AUGUSTUS VictoryOver Brutus Cassius Assassins of Julius Caesar Roman Coin 33511
CAMPANIA, HYRIA 400BC Ancient Silver Greek Coin Man headed bull RARE i16168
Syracuse in Sicily King Hieron II 275BC Ancient Greek Coin Horse man i33811
Augustus & Julius Caesar 27BC Authentic Ancient Roman Republic Coin i33461
ALEXANDER III the GREAT on horse Rome-Era Olympic Ancient Games Coin i28366
KAULONIA in BRUTTIUM 530BC Very RARE Ancient Silver Greek Stater Coin i31196
JESUS CHRIST First Crusade ruler Alexius I Class J Ancient Byzantine Coin i34952
Tarsus Cilicia 369BC Silver Ancient Greek Coin Nude Ana Datames Satrap i28602
Helena Saint Mother of Constantine the Great 326AD Roman Coin Security i30293
GALLIENUS & his father VALERIAN I 255AD Rare Ancient Silver Roman Coin i23524
AMBRACIA 360BC Pegasus Flying Horse Stater Silver Greek Coin RARE i31180
GALLIENUS son of Valerian I Ancient Silver Roman Coin Antiquity God i24472
THEODOSIUS II 425AD Ancient Roman Coin Cross within wreath of success i32515
ELAGABALUS Bisexual Emperor 218AD HUGE Ancient Roman Coin ARTEMIS Cult i16840
CARACALLA 198AD Edessa in Macedonia ROMA & TYCHE Ancient Roman Coin i25180
Jesus Christ Birth Magii Azes II on Horse 35BC Ancient Silver Greek Coin i35919
CONSTANTINE I the Great 337AD Heaven CHARIOT Ancient Roman Coin Horses i24343
MARCUS AURELIUS Macedonia Large Ancient Roman Coin Winged thunderbolt i17231
GALLIENUS son of Valerian I Ancient Roman Coin Victory i26211
GALLIENUS son of Valerian I Billon silver Ancient Roman Coin MARS War i29098
Andronicus II & Michael IX Rare Ancient Byzantine Coin Virgin Orans i20092
JESUS CHRIST on MICHAEL VII 1071AD Ancient Medieval Byzantine Coin i33911
AKRAGAS in Sicily after Destruction by Carthage 405BC Hexas GREEK Coin i28412
Constantine I the Great 319AD Silvered Ancient Roman Coin Two Victories i28622
Nero as Apollo 54AD Perinthus Large Very rare Ancient Roman Coin Lyre i30606
THASOS Thracian Island 411BC Nude Satyr Ancient Silver Greek Coin Vase i16119
Latin Empire 1204AD Ancient Byzantine Coin Christ Archangel Michael i30699
GALLIENUS son of Valerian I Ancient Roman Coin Fertility Health cult i29137
Latin Rulers of Constantinople 1204AD Byzantine Coin Christ Virgin Orans i20404
ELAGABALUS 218AD Antioch STANDARDS Silver Ancient Roman Coin Rare i17991
SALONINA daughter in law of Valerian I Ancient Silvered Roman Coin Juno i35836
Netherlands Queen Juliana 1955 Large Silver 1 Gulden Antique Coin i32337
France Fifth Republic Antique 1960 Silver Purity 83.5% 5 Francs HUGE Coin i32345
Jesus Christ Birth Magii Azes II on Horse 35BC Ancient Silver Greek Coin i35917
NICHOLAS II Last RUSSIAN Emperor Czar 1898 HUGE Silver Coin Coat-of-arms i32048
GALLIENUS son of Valerian I Ancient Roman Coin Fertility Wealth Symbol i29185
Tiberius & Livia Augustus wife 22AD Thessalonica Ancient Roman Coin i30258 RARE
SALONINA Valerian I daughter in law Roman Coin Vesta Cult Home Family i34507
Gallienus son of Valerian I Ancient Roman Coin PAX Irene i35847
GELA in Sicily Bull w man head Horse Very Rare Ancient Silver Greek Coin i22400
VALERIAN I 254AD Rare Genuine Ancient Silver Roman Coin VICTORY i23483
PTOLEMY IV Huge 41mm Greek Egyptian King Rare Ancient Coin Zeus EAGLE i20922
GALLIENUS son of Valerian I Milan Silver Ancient Roman Coin Nude SOL i26666
Lete Silver Ancient Greek Coin Nude Satyr Pan & Dionysus companion i28597
Gallienus son of Valerian I Ancient Roman Coin His last issue Panther i27022
ELIS - City of Birth of OLYMPIC GAMES 196BC Ancient Silver Greek Coin i31878
MITHRA on Kingdom of Persis Ardaxsir (Artaxerxes) III Silver "Greek" Coin i32691
Gallienus ruled w father Valerian I 255AD Silver Ancient Roman Coin RARE i34125
Valerian II 256AD Silver Ancient Roman Coin Rare Child Jupiter on goat i28504
Histiaia Euboia Nymph 300BC Authentic Ancient Silver Greek Coin Galley i28263
Gallienus Joint Rule with Valerian I 263AD Ancient Roman Coin Victory i17024
CASSANDER Killer of Alexander the Great son Greek Coin HERCULES Horse i27055
PHERAE (Pherai) Greek City in Thessaly 404BC Ennodia Lion Ancient Coin i28343
SALONINA w Valerian II, Saloninus & Gallienus Jr Rare Silver Roman Coin i26781
VALERIAN I 257AD RARE Silver Ancient Roman Coin Nude Sol Sun God w globe i34140
Fibula 100BC Quality Ancient SILVER Roman Clothes Fastener ARTIFACT i24184
Gallienus son of Valerian I Ancient Roman Coin Fortuna Luck Wealth i33045
SYRACUSE Sicily King Hiketas Zeus Hellanios & Eagle Ancient Greek Coin i28397
HADRIAN Bisexual Emperor 123AD Rare Ancient Roman Silver Coin Equality i28265
Alexander III the Great 336BC Ancient Greek Coin Hercules Bow Club i30272
Opus LOKRIS OPUNTIA 369BC Nude Ajax Sword Ancient Silver Greek Coin RARE i31883
Thasos Silver Ancient Greek Coin Nude Satyr Pan & Dionysus companion i28595
SINOPE colony of Miletos 480BC RARE Ancient Silver Greek Coin Eagle head i31163
WIDOW's MITE Ancient Biblical Jerusalem Biblical Jesus Era Coin in CROSS i36275
VALERIAN II crowning trophy Roman Caesar 256AD Ancient Silver Coin i16773
Chersonesos in Thrace 400BC Lion & Incuse Rare Ancient Silver Greek Coin i26122
GALLIENUS son of Valerian I Tyche Fortuna Luck Ancient Roman Coin i24868
DYNASTS of LYCIA. 450BC Athena & Apollo Ancient Silver Greek Coin i26973
Gallienus son of Valerian I Ancient Roman Coin Antelope Very rare i32795
Thraco-Macedonian Tribes 450BC Horse Genuine Ancient Silver Greek Coin i22386
SALONINA daughter in law of Valerian I Billon Silver Ancient Roman Coin i21573
GALLIENUS Valerian I son LYCAONIA Romulus Remus She-Wolf Roman Coin RARE i26442
Ancient FourrĂ©e Silver Roman Republic Coin Roma & Victory Chariot i35208
Ancient FourrĂ©e Mule Roman Republic Coin w Bituitus French Tribe King i35205
VALERIAN I 254AD Authentic Silver Ancient Roman Coin Nude Zeus Jupiter i26750
SEVERUS ALEXANDER Nicaea LEGIONARY EAGLE STANDARDS Ancient Roman Coin i26477
Gallienus Son of Valerian I Tabae, Caria HUGE Ancient Roman Coin Fortuna i28567
Roman Republic Silver Coin GIRL v SERPENT Chastity Test Juno Sospita 64BC i35206
CARACALLA Thessalonica in Macedonia Rare Nike in Triga Ancient Roman Coin i35210
Augustus - Authentic Roman Ancient Coin Barbarous Celtic or Britain i35213 rare
Augustus - Roman Emperor: 27 B.C.-14 A.D. Ancient Coin Three Countermarks i35214
TREBONIANUS GALLUS Rare Roman Provincial Coin HERCULES Finishes Labors i35221
MAXIMUS Caesar Caesar under Maximinus: 235AD Thrace Provincial Roman Coin i35223
Augustus - Roman Emperor: 27 B.C.-14 A.D. Ancient Coin TI.C.A Countermark i35218
GALLIENUS son of Valerian I Silvered Rare Ancient Roman Coin Wealth i21588
CONSTANTINE I the GREAT 322AD Aquileia Ancient Roman Coin Wreath i30296
CONSTANTINE I the GREAT Romulus Remus Ancient Roman Coin WOLF i24786
Victorinus Colonia Agrippinensis Rare Ancient Roman Coin Salus Health i27441
GALLIENUS son of Valerian I Quality Silver Ancient Roman Coin MARS i21575
GALLIENUS son of Valerian I Horse Alexandria Troas Ancient Roman Coin i28322
THEODOSIUS II 425AD Ancient Roman Coin Cross within wreath of success i32890
SALONINA daughter in law of Valerian I Roman Coin Vesta Home Family i34851
GALLIENUS son of Valerian I Ancient Roman Coin Liberality i27144
AEMILIAN ( Aemilianus ) 253AD VERY RARE Ancient Silver Roman Coin Roma i30131
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