Check out these fascinating articles for more great ideas:

List of All Roman Emperors and Empresses Chronologically organized:


Ancient Greek Cities or Kingdoms of Interest

Ancient Greek Rulers of Interest

Related to Christianity

Ancient Greek / Roman Deities, Locations and more:

Astrological Ancient Coins - Just some of the Ideas for Owning, available inside my eBay store.


Byzantine Coins

Browse by Category:

Welcome to the best ancient Greek, Roman, Biblical, Medieval, Byzantine online coin store. Up above are pages you can click on that give you great ideas about the types of coins available for sale. Items are usually shipped daily so you can rest assured to make these as great unique gifts for both men and women. As a numismatist, I believe ancient coins make one of the best investments. Collectors of numismatic coins may fall in love with this old money. Ancient coins come in both bronze and precious metals such as silver and gold. What is great is that you can great value as these types of coins are not popularized in places such as the antiques roadshow or pawn stars. You can see for yourself by the feedback, that there is over 99% positive experience for anyone that shops here and that you are dealing with one of the best, most reputable coin dealers on the internet. Coin collecting is easy and fun with the wealth of information presented. It is an amazing feeling to hold historical currency from thousands of years ago. These coins are worth money not just for their intrinsic, but also historical, numismatic and collector value. Investing money into an ancient coin collection is for anyone who values rarity, beauty and so much more that make up this great hobby. You may be looking for advice on how or where to start. There are many great links available in my eBay store that cover many great topics on ancient coins. Anything that you buy here is of great value, especially for the long term and the short term. The prices you can buy coins here are negotiable via the 'make offer' feature that is available on all items so you can get amazingly good deals buying coins and a selection of rarities not found anywhere else. The collecting guide above is a great list that can be used as a tool to collect almost every emperor or empress as it is in chronological order and allows you to search my store for those coins by clicking on them. Other great topics, such as Ancient Greek and Roman Commemorative coins deals with the most interesting commemorative coins you can buy. Happy shopping. I look forward to dealing with you for a lifetime. Some of the oldest, most valuable ancient coins that you may find here are that of Julius Caesar and Alexander the Great. Exchange your modern money for ancient money by buying an amazing ancient coin today. A great gift for yourself and others.

To help people find my store

12 caesars coins
12 caesars list
alexander the great coin
alexander the great coins
an ancient greek coin
ancient coin
ancient coin auction
ancient coin auctions
ancient coin dealer
ancient coin dealers
ancient coin values
ancient coins
ancient coins aion
ancient coins constantine the great
ancient coins dealers
ancient coins ebay
ancient coins for sale
ancient coins for sale caesars
ancient coins for sale on ebay
ancient coins forum
ancient coins found in america
ancient coins from bible times
ancient coins identification
ancient coins ngc
ancient coins of egypt
ancient coins of greece
ancient coins of israel
ancient coins of syria
ancient coins on ebay
ancient coins pictures
ancient coins temple entrance
ancient coins value
ancient egypt coins
ancient egyptian coins
ancient greece el-as
ancient greek coinage
ancient greek coins
ancient greek coins ebay
ancient greek coins for sale
ancient greek money
ancient jewish coins
ancient roman
ancient roman artifacts
ancient roman coins
ancient roman coins facts
ancient coins for sale
ancient roman coins identification
ancient roman coins for sale
ancient rome coins
ancient rome currency
ancient roman money
ancient silver coins
antic coin
antique coin
antique coin appraisal
antique coin dealers
antique coins
antique roman coins
antiques for sale
antiques online
antiques roadshow
antoninus pius coin
antoninus pius coins
athenian coin
athenian owl coins
auction coins
augustus coins
authentic ancient coins
authentic ancient greek coins
authentic coins
authentic roman coins
best coin dealers online
best coin shops
best investments
bible coins
biblical coins
brutus coin
brutus coin ides of march
buy ancient coins
buy coins online
buy gold online
buy old coins
buy rare coins
buy roman coins
buy silver coins
buying coins
buying silver
byzantine coin
byzantien coins
byzantine coins for sale
byzantine gold coins
caesar augustus coin
caesar coin
caesar coins
caesar coins for sale
caligula coins
caracalla coins
cheap ancient coins
chinese coins
christian coins
christian rome
claudius coins
cleopatra coins
coast to coast coins
coin auction
coin catalog
coin collecting
coin collecting tips
coin collectors
coin companies
coin dealer secrets
coin dealers
coin dealers near me
coin dealers on line
coin dealers uk
coin exchange
coin for sale
coin history
coin numismatic
coin online shop
coin search
coin sellers
coin shop online
coin shops
coin store
coin stores
coin value
coin value guide
coin websites
coin world
coins and collectibles
coins ebay
coins for sale
coins of ancient greece
coins of ancient rome
coins of bible
coins of the bible
coins of the world
coins online
coins photos
coins shop
coins store
coins worth money
collectible coins for sale
collecting ancient coins
collector coins
commemorative coins
commodus coins
constantine coins
constantine the great coins
crispus coins
currency dealers
diocletian coins
ebay roman coins
ebay ancient coins
ebay ancient greek coins
ebay antiques
ebay silver coins for sale
ebypt coins
emperor coins
foreign coins
foreign ancient coins
foreign coins for sale
forum ancient coins
ancient coins forum
gaius julius caesar
galba coins
geta coins
gifts for men
gifts for women
good investments
greece coin
greece coins
greek coin
greek coin values
greek coins
greek coins ancient
greek coins before euro
greek coins ebay
greek coins facts
greek coins for sale
Greek Coins images
Greek Coins Information
Greek Coins Information for Kids
Greek Coins Look Like
Greek Coins Pictures
Greek Currency
Greek Roman Coins
Hadrian Coins
Hammered Coins for Sale
Historical Coins for Sale
History of Coins
History of Roman Coins
Honest Coin Dealers
How to Buy Silver
How to Find an Honest Coin Dealer
How to Invest
How to Start Investing
Identifying Roman Coins
Ides of March Coin
Images of Ancient Coins
Interesting Coins
Investing Money
Investment Advice
Jerusalem Coins
Jesus Christ Coins
Jesus Coins
Julian of Pannonia coins
Julius Caesar coin
julius caesar coins
Julius Caesar Coin for sale
Local Coin Dealers
Lydian Coins
Macrinus Coins
Marcus Aurelius Coins
Mark Antony Coins
Marc Antony Coins
Middle Ages Coins
Most Valuable Coins
Nero Coins
Numismatic coin
Numismatic coin auctions
Numismatic coin dealers
Numismatic coins
Numismatic Coins for sale
Numismatic coins
Old Coin Prices
Old Coin Shop
Old Coin Values
Old Coins
Old Coins eBay
Old Coins for Sale
Old Coins Worth
Old Foreign Coins
Old Greek COin
Old Greek Coin Names
Old Greek Coins
Old Money
Old Money for Sale
Old Rare Coins
Old Roman Coins
Old Silver Coins
Oldest Coin
Oldest Coins
Online Coin Auctions
Online Coin Dealers
Online Coin Store
Online Coins
Otho Coins
Cassius Coins
Pacatian Coins
Name Coins
Pertinax Coins
Pontius Pilate Coins
Precious Metals
Princess Coins
Queen Coins
Rare Coin
Rare Coin Dealers
Rare Coins
Rare Coins Dealer
Rare Coins eBay
Rare Coins for Sale Cheap
Rare Coins for Sale on eBay
Rare Greek Coins
Reliable Coin Dealers
Reputabale Coin Dealers
Reputabale Online Coin Dealers
Roma Coins
Roman Artifacts for Sale
Roman Catalog
Roman Coins for Sale
Roman Coin Forum
Roman Coin Rings
Roman Coins
Roman Coins eBay
Roman Coins Pictures
Roman Coins Sale
Roman Coins Value
Roman eBay
Roman Empire Coins
Roman Empress Livia
Roman Gods Coins
Roman Greek Coins
Roman Military Coins
Roman Republic Coins
Roman Coins
Saint Coins
Septimius Severus Coins
Short Term Investments
Silver Coin
Silver Coin Prices
Silver Coins eBay
Silver Denarius
Silver for Sale
Silver Investing
Silver Value
The Coin Show
Tiberius Coins
Top Coin Dealers
Trajan Coins
Trusted Coin Dealers
Twelve Caesars Coins
Unique Gifts
Valuable Coins
Value of Silver
Virgin Mary Coins
Vitellius Coins
Where to Buy Silver
Where to Invest
Widow's Mite
Widow Mite
World Ancient Coins
World Coins Dealers
World Coins eBay
Zeno Coins

Gallienus Roman Emperor 253-268AD Biography and Ancient Coins for Sale

Buy certified ancient coins with Gallienus Roman Emperor

 Get incredible value with a LIFETIME GUARANTEE of AUTHENTICITY. Also every item purchased here comes with a beautiuful custom-made certificate of authenticity, complete with professional description, research, professional photograph and historical synopsis, a $50-$100 value, absolutely free, signed by world-renowned ancient coin expert, Ilya Zlobin.


Gallienus rare Roman coin for sale.  buy gallienus coins
Example of Authentic Ancient Coin of:

Gallienus - Roman Emperor: 253-268 A.D. - Joint Rule with Valerian I  253-260 A.D. -
Bronze Sestertius  Rome mint: 253-254 A.D.
Reference: C. 1295; MIR 38dd.; RIC 248
Pedigree: Ex Gorny & Mosch
IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
VIRTVS AVGG, Soldier standing left, holding shield set on ground and spear, S - C across fields.


Gallienus (Latin: Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus; c. 218 – 268) was Roman Emperor with his father Valerian from 253 to 260 and alone from 260 to 268. He ruled during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire. While he won a number of military victories, he was unable to prevent the secession of important provinces.Gallienus bust.jpg

Rise to power

The exact birth date of Gallienus is unknown. The Greek chronicler John Malalas and the Epitome de Caesaribus report that he was about 50 years old at the time of his death, meaning he was born around 218. He was the son of emperor Valerian and Mariniana, who may have been of senatorial rank, possibly the daughter of Egnatius Victor Marinianus, and his brother was Valerianus Minor. Inscriptions on coins connect him with Falerii in Etruria, which may have been his birthplace; it has yielded many inscriptions relating to his mother's family, the Egnatii.[3] Gallienus married Cornelia Salonina about ten years before his accession to the throne. She was the mother of three princes: Valerian II, who died in 258; Saloninus, who was named co-emperor but was murdered in 260 by the army of general Postumus; and Marinianus, who was killed in 268, shortly after his father was assassinated.

When Valerian was proclaimed Emperor on 22 October 253, he asked the Senate to ratify the elevation of Gallienus to Caesar and Augustus. He was also designated Consul Ordinarius for 254. As Marcus Aurelius and his adopted brother Lucius Verus had done a century earlier, Gallienus and his father divided the Empire. Valerian left for the East to stem the Persian threat, and Gallienus remained in Italy to repel the Germanic tribes on the Rhine and Danube. Division of the empire had become necessary due to its sheer size and the numerous threats it faced, and it facilitated negotiations with enemies who demanded to communicate directly with the emperor.

Early reign and the revolt of Ingenuus

Gallienus spent most of his time in the provinces of the Rhine area (Germania Inferior, Germania Superior, Raetia, and Noricum), though he almost certainly visited the Danube area and Illyricum during 253 to 258. According to Eutropius and Aurelius Victor, he was particularly energetic and successful in preventing invaders from attacking the German provinces and Gaul, despite the weakness caused by Valerian's march on Italy against Aemilianus in 253. According to numismatic evidence, he seems to have won many victories there, and a victory in Roman Dacia might also be dated to that period. Even the hostile Latin tradition attributes success to him at this time.

In 255 or 257, Gallienus was made Consul again, suggesting that he briefly visited Rome on those occasions, although no record survives. During his Danube sojourn (Drinkwater suggests in 255 or 256), he proclaimed his elder son Valerian II Caesar and thus official heir to himself and Valerian I; the boy probably joined Gallienus on campaign at that time, and when Gallienus moved west to the Rhine provinces in 257, he remained behind on the Danube as the personification of Imperial authority.

Sometime between 258 and 260 (the exact date is unclear), while Valerian was distracted with the ongoing invasion of Shapur in the East, and Gallienus was preoccupied with his problems in the West, Ingenuus, governor of at least one of the Pannonian provinces, took advantage and declared himself emperor. Valerian II had apparently died on the Danube, most likely in 258. Ingenuus may have been responsible for that calamity. Alternatively, the defeat and capture of Valerian at the battle of Edessa may have been the trigger for the subsequent revolts of Ingenuus, Regalianus, and Postumus. In any case, Gallienus reacted with great speed. He left his son Saloninus as Caesar at Cologne, under the supervision of Albanus (or Silvanus) and the military leadership of Postumus. He then hastily crossed the Balkans, taking with him the new cavalry corps (comitatus) under the command of Aureolus and defeated Ingenuus at Mursa or Sirmium.The victory must be attributed mainly to the cavalry and its brilliant commander. Ingenuus was killed by his own guards or committed suicide by drowning himself after the fall of his capital, Sirmium.

Invasion of the Alamanni

A major invasion by the Alemanni and other Germanic tribes occurred between 258 and 260 (it is hard to fix the precise date of these events),probably due to the vacuum left by the withdrawal of troops supporting Gallienus in the campaign against Ingenuus. Franks broke through the lower Rhine, invading Gaul, some reaching as far as southern Spain, sacking Tarraco (modern Tarragona).The Alamanni invaded, probably through Agri Decumates (an area between the upper Rhine and the upper Danube), likely followed by the Juthungi. After devastating Germania Superior and Raetia (parts of southern France and Switzerland), they entered Italy, the first invasion of the Italian peninsula, aside from its most remote northern regions, since Hannibal 500 years before. When invaders reached the outskirts of Rome, they were repelled by an improvised army assembled by the Senate, consisting of local troops (probably prǣtorian guards) and the strongest of the civilian population.On their retreat through northern Italy, they were intercepted and defeated in the battle of Mediolanum (near present day Milan) by Gallienus' army, which had advanced from Gaul, or from the Balkans after dealing with the Franks.The battle of Mediolanum was decisive, and the Alamanni didn't bother the empire for the next ten years. The Juthungi managed to cross the Alps with their valuables and captives from Italy. An historian in the 19th century suggested that the initiative of the Senate gave rise to jealousy and suspicion by Gallienus, thus contributing to his exclusion of senators from military commands.

The revolt of Regalianus

Around the same time, Regalianus, a military commander of Illyricum, was proclaimed Emperor. The reasons for this are unclear, and the Historia Augusta (almost the sole resource for these events) does not provide a credible story. It is possible the seizure can be attributed to the discontent of the civilian and military provincials, who felt the defense of the province was being neglected.

Regalianus held power for some six months and issued coins bearing his image. After some success against the Sarmatians, his revolt was put down by the invasion of Roxolani into Pannonia, and Regalianus himself was killed when the invaders took the city of Sirmium. There is a suggestion that Gallienus invited Roxolani to attack Regalianus, but other historians dismiss the accusation.It is also suggested that the invasion was finally checked by Gallienus near Verona and that he directed the restoration of the province, probably in person.

Capture of Valerian, revolt of Macrianus

In the East, Valerian was confronted with serious troubles. A band of Scythians set a naval raid against Pontus, in the northern part of modern Turkey. After ravaging the province, they moved south into Cappadocia. Valerian led troops to intercept them but failed, perhaps because of a plague that gravely weakened his army, as well as the contemporary invasion of northern Mesopotamia by Shapur I, ruler of the Sassanid Empire.

In 259 or 260, the Roman army was defeated in the Battle of Edessa, and Valerian was taken prisoner. Shapur's army raided Cilicia and Cappadocia (in present day Turkey), sacking, as Shapur's inscriptions claim, 36 cities. It took a rally by an officer Callistus (Balista), a fiscal official named Fulvius Macrianus, the remains of the Eastern Roman legions, and Odenathus and his Palmyrene horsemen to turn the tide against Shapur. The Persians were driven back, but Macrianus proclaimed his two sons Quietus and Macrianus (sometimes misspelled Macrinus) as emperors. Coins struck for them in major cities of the East indicate acknowledgement of the usurpation. The two Macriani left Quietus, Ballista, and, presumably, Odenathus to deal with the Persians while they invaded Europe with an army of 30,000 men, according to the Historia Augusta. At first they met no opposition. The Pannonian legions joined the invaders, being resentful of the absence of Gallienus. He sent his successful commander Aureolus against the rebels, however, and the decisive battle was fought in the spring or early summer of 261, most likely in Illyricum, although Zonaras locates it in Pannonia. In any case, the army of the usurpers surrendered, and their two leaders were killed.

In the aftermath of the battle, the rebellion of Postumus had already started, so Gallienus had no time to deal with the rest of the usurpers, namely Balista and Quietus. He came to an agreement with Odenathus, who had just returned from his victorious Persian expedition. Odenathus received the title of dux Romanorum and besieged the usurpers, who were based at Emesa. Eventually, the people of Emesa killed Quietus, and Odenathus arrested and executed Balista about November 261.

The revolt of Postumus

After the defeat at Edessa, Gallienus lost control over the provinces of Britain, Spain, parts of Germania, and a large part of Gaul when another general, Postumus, declared his own realm (usually known today as the Gallic Empire). The revolt partially coincided with that of Macrianus in the East. Gallienus had installed his son Saloninus and his guardian, Silvanus, in Cologne in 258. Postumus, a general in command of troops on the banks of the Rhine, defeated some raiders and took possession of their spoils. Instead of returning it to the original owners, he preferred to distribute it amongst his soldiers. When news of this reached Silvanus, he demanded the spoils be sent to him. Postumus made a show of submission, but his soldiers mutinied and proclaimed him Emperor. Under his command, they besieged Cologne, and after some weeks the defenders of the city opened the gates and handed Saloninus and Silvanus to Postumus, who had them killed. The dating of these events is not accurate, but they apparently occurred just before the end of 260. Postumus claimed the consulship for himself and one of his associates, Honoratianus, but according to D.S. Potter, he never tried to unseat Gallienus or invade Italy.

Upon receiving news of the murder of his son, Gallienus began gathering forces to face Postumus. The invasion of the Macriani forced him to dispatch Aureolus with a large force to oppose them, however, leaving him with insufficient troops to battle Postumus. After some initial defeats, the army of Aureolus, having defeated the Macriani, rejoined him, and Postumus was expelled. Aureolus was entrusted with the pursuit and deliberately allowed Postumus to escape and gather new forces. Gallienus returned in 263 or 265 and surrounded Postumus in an unnamed Gallic city. During the siege, Gallenus was severely wounded by an arrow and had to leave the field. The standstill persisted until the death of Gallienus, and the Gallic Empire remained independent until 274.

The revolt of Aemilianus

In 262, the mint in Alexandria started to again issue coins for Gallienus, demonstrating that Egypt had returned to his control after suppressing the revolt of the Macriani. In spring of 262, the city was wrenched by civil unrest as a result of a new revolt. The rebel this time was the prefect of Egypt, Lucius Mussius Aemilianus, who had already given support to the revolt of the Macriani. The correspondence of bishop Dionysius of Alexandria provides a colourful commentary on the sombre background of invasion, civil war, plague, and famine that characterized this age.

Knowing he could not afford to lose control of the vital Egyptian granaries, Gallienus sent his general Theodotus against Aemilianus, probably by a naval expedition. The decisive battle probably took place near Thebes, and the result was a clear defeat of Aemilianus. In the aftermath, Gallienus became Consul three more times in 262, 264, and 266.

Herulian invasions, revolt of Aureolus, conspiracy and death

In the years 267–269, Goths and other barbarians invaded the empire in great numbers. Sources are extremely confused on the dating of these invasions, the participants, and their targets. Modern historians are not even able to discern with certainty whether there were two or more of these invasions or a single prolonged one. It seems that, at first, a major naval expedition was led by the Heruli starting from north of the Black Sea and leading in the ravaging of many cities of Greece (among them, Athens and Sparta). Then another, even more numerous army of invaders started a second naval invasion of the empire. The Romans defeated the barbarians on sea first. Gallienus' army then won a battle in Thrace, and the Emperor pursued the invaders. According to some historians, he was the leader of the army who won the great Battle of Naissus, while the majority believes that the victory must be attributed to his successor, Claudius II.

In 268, at some time before or soon after the battle of Naissus, the authority of Gallienus was challenged by Aureolus, commander of the cavalry stationed in Mediolanum (Milan), who was supposed to keep an eye on Postumus. Instead, he acted as deputy to Postumus until the very last days of his revolt, when he seems to have claimed the throne for himself. The decisive battle took place at what is now Pontirolo Nuovo near Milan; Aureolus was clearly defeated and driven back to Milan. Gallienus laid siege to the city but was murdered during the siege. There are differing accounts of the murder, but the sources agree that most of Gallienus' officials wanted him dead. According to the Historia Augusta, an unreliable source compiled long after the events it describes, a conspiracy was led by the commander of the guard Aurelius Heraclianus and Marcianus.

Cecropius, commander of the Dalmatians, spread the word that the forces of Aureolus were leaving the city, and Gallienus left his tent without his bodyguard, only to be struck down by Cecropius.One version has Claudius selected as Emperor by the conspirators, another chosen by Gallienus on his death bed; the Historia Augusta was concerned to substantiate the descent of the Constantinian dynasty from Claudius, and this may explain its accounts, which do not involve Claudius in the murder. The other sources (Zosimus i.40 and Zonaras xii.25) report that the conspiracy was organized by Heraclianus, Claudius, and Aurelian.

According to Aurelius Victor and Zonaras, on hearing the news that Gallienus was dead, the Senate in Rome ordered the execution of his family (including his brother Valerianus and son Marinianus) and their supporters, just before receiving a message from Claudius to spare their lives and deify his predecessor.

Arch of Gallienus in Rome, 262 – dedicated to, rather than built by, Gallienus.


Gallienus was not treated favorably by ancient historians, partly due to the secession of Gaul and Palmyra and his inability to win them back. According to modern scholar Pat Southern, some historians now see him in a more positive light.Gallienus produced some useful reforms. He contributed to military history as the first to commission primarily cavalry units, the Comitatenses, that could be dispatched anywhere in the Empire in short order. This reform arguably created a precedent for the future emperors Diocletian and Constantine I.

The biographer Aurelius Victor reports that Gallienus forbade senators from becoming military commanders. This policy undermined senatorial power, as more reliable equestrian commanders rose to prominence. In Southern's view, these reforms and the decline in senatorial influence not only helped Aurelian to salvage the Empire, but they also make Gallienus one of the emperors most responsible for the creation of the Dominate, along with Septimius Severus, Diocletian, and Constantine I.

By portraying himself with the attributes of the gods on his coinage, Gallienus began the final separation of the Emperor from his subjects.A late bust of Gallienus (see above) depicts him with a largely blank face, gazing heavenward, as seen on the famous stone head of Constantine I. One of the last rulers of Rome to be theoretically called "Princeps", or First Citizen, Gallienus' shrewd self-promotion assisted in paving the way for those who would be addressed with the words "Dominus et Deus" (Lord and God).

www.TrustedCoins.commm Buy Real Ancient Greek Roman Biblical Byzantine Coins and Artifacts