List of All Roman Emperors and Empresses Chronologically organized:
Ancient Greek Cities or Kingdoms of Interest
Ancient Greek Rulers of Interest
Related to Christianity
Ancient Greek / Roman Deities, Locations and more:
Astrological Ancient Coins - Just some of the Ideas for Owning, available inside my eBay store.
Browse by Category:
MAXIMINUS I Thrax Roman Emperor 235-238 A.D. Biography & Certified Authentic Ancient Roman Coins Available to Buy Online
Buy MAXIMINUS I Thrax Roman Emperor ancient coins from a trusted ancient
coin dealer. Cwas Roman Emperor from 235 to 238.
Maximinus is described by several ancient sources (none of which, except for Herodian's Roman History, was actually contemporary with Maximinus) as the first barbarian who wore the imperial purple and the first emperor never to set foot in Rome. He was the first of the so-called barracks emperors of the 3rd century; his rule is often considered to mark the beginning of the Crisis of the Third Century.
Rise to power
According to the notoriously unreliable Historia Augusta (Augustan History), Maximinus was born in Thrace or Moesia to a Gothic father and an Alanic mother; however, the supposed parentage is highly unlikely, as the presence of the Goths in the Danubian area is first attested after the beginning of the Crisis of the Third Century. Sir Ronald Syme, writing that "the word 'Gothia' should have sufficed for condemnation" of the passage in the Augustan History, felt that the burden of evidence from Herodian, Syncellus and elsewhere pointed to Maximinus having been born in Moesia. Most likely he was of Thraco-Roman origin (believed so by Herodian in his writings), and the references to his "Gothic" ancestry might refer to a Thracian Getae origin (the two populations were often confused by later writers, most notably by Jordanes in his Getica), as suggested by the paragraphs describing how "he was singularly beloved by the Getae, moreover, as if he were one of themselves" and how he spoke "almost pure Thracian".
His background was, in any case, that of a provincial of low birth, and Maximinus, similarly to later Thraco-Roman Roman emperors of the 3rd-5th century (Licinius, Galerius, Aureolus, Leo the Thracian, etc.), would elevate himself, via a military career, from the condition of a common soldier in one of the Roman legions to the foremost positions of political power. He joined the army during the reign of Septimius Severus, but did not rise to a powerful position until promoted by Alexander Severus. Maximinus was in command of the recruits from Pannonia, who were angered by Alexander's payments to the Alemanni and his avoidance of war. The troops, among whom included the Legio XXII Primigenia, elected the stern Maximinus, killing young Alexander and his mother at Moguntiacum, also a site where many Christians were martyred (Mainz) in 235. The Praetorian Guard acclaimed him emperor, and their choice was grudgingly confirmed by the Senate, who were displeased to have a peasant as emperor. His son Maximus became caesar.
According to British historian Edward Gibbon:
Consolidation of power
Maximinus hated the nobility and was ruthless towards those he suspected of plotting against him. He began by eliminating the close advisors of Alexander. His suspicions may have been justified; two plots against Maximinus were foiled. The first was during a campaign across the Rhine, during which a group of officers, supported by influential senators, plotted the destruction of a bridge across the river, then leave Maximinus stranded on the other side. Afterwards they planned to elect senator Magnus emperor; however the plot was discovered and the conspirators executed. The second plot involved Mesopotamian archers who were loyal to Alexander. They planned to elevate Quartinus, but their leader Macedo changed sides and murdered Quartinus instead, although this was not enough to save his own life.
Defence of frontiers
The Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis") is a commonly applied name for the crumbling and near collapse of the Roman Empire between 235 and 284 caused by three simultaneous crises: external invasion, internal civil war, and economic collapse.
Maximinus' first campaign was against the Alamanni, whom Maximinus defeated despite heavy Roman casualties in a swamp near what is today Baden-Württemberg. After the victory, Maximinus took the title Germanicus Maximus, raised his son Maximus to the rank of Caesar and Prince of Youths, and deified his late wife Paulina. Securing the German frontier, at least for a while, Maximinus then set up a winter encampment at Sirmium in Pannonia, and from that supply base fought the Dacians and the Sarmatians during the winter of 235–236.
Gordian I and Gordian II
Early in 238, in the province of Africa, a treasury official's extortions through false judgments in corrupt courts against some local landowners ignited a full-scale revolt in the province. The landowners armed their clients and their agricultural workers and entered Thysdrus (modern El Djem), where they murdered the offending official and his bodyguards and proclaimed the aged governor of the province, Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus (Gordian I), and his son, Gordian II, as co-emperors. The senate in Rome switched allegiance, gave both Gordian and Gordian II the title of Augustus, and set about rousing the provinces in support of the pair. Maximinus immediately assembled his army and advanced on Rome, the Pannonian legions leading the way.
Meanwhile, in Africa, the revolt had not gone as planned. The province of Africa was bordered on the west by the province of Numidia, whose governor, Capellianus, nursed a long-standing grudge against the Gordians and controlled the only legionary unit (III Augusta) in the area. He marched on Carthage and easily overwhelmed the local militias defending the city. Gordian II was killed in the fighting and, on hearing this, Gordian I hanged himself with his belt.
Pupienus, Balbinus, and Gordian III
When the African revolt collapsed, the senate found itself in great jeopardy. Having shown clear support for the Gordians, they could expect no clemency from Maximinus when he reached Rome. In this predicament, they determined to defy Maximinus and elected two of their number, Pupienus and Balbinus, as co-emperors. When the Roman mob heard that the Senate had selected two men from the Patrician class, men whom the ordinary people held in no great regard, they protested, showering the imperial cortège with sticks and stones. A faction in Rome preferred Gordian's grandson (Gordian III), and there was severe street fighting. The co-emperors had no option but to compromise, and, sending for the grandson of the elder Gordian they appointed him Caesar.
Defeat and death
Maximinus marched on Rome, but at Aquileia Maximinus's troops, suffering from famine and disease, bogged down in an unexpected siege of the city, which had closed its gates when they approached, became disaffected. In April 238 the Praetorian guards in his camp assassinated him, his son and his chief ministers. Their heads were cut off, placed on poles, and carried to Rome by cavalrymen.
Pupienus and Balbinus then became undisputed co-emperors.
Maximinus doubled the pay of soldiers; this act, along with virtually continuous warfare, required higher taxes. Tax-collectors began to resort to violent methods and illegal confiscations, further alienating the governing class from everyone else.
Maximinus reversed Alexander's policy of clemency towards the Christians, who were viewed as unsupportive enemies of the state. He persecuted Christians ruthlessly, and the bishop of Rome, Pontian, as well as his successor, Anterus, are said to have been martyred.
Ancient sources, ranging from the notoriously unreliable Historia Augusta to Herodian, speak of Maximinus as a man of significantly greater size than his contemporaries. He is, moreover, depicted in ancient imagery as man with a prominent brow, nose, and jaw; symptoms of one form of overgrowth. While the exact size of Maximinus will probably never be known, he was nonetheless likely a man of great size.
According to Historia Augusta, "he was of such size, so Cordus reports, that men said he was eight foot, six inches in height". It is likely however that this is one of the many 'tall tales' in the Historia Augusta, and is immediately suspect due to its citation of 'Cordus', one of the several fictitious authorities the work cites.
Although not going into the supposedly detailed portions of Historia Augusta, chronicler Herodian, a contemporary of Maximinus, mentions him as a man of greater size, noting that: "He was in any case a man of such frightening appearance and colossal size that there is no obvious comparison to be drawn with any of the best-trained Greek athletes or warrior elite of the barbarians."
Some historians interpret the stories on Maximinus' unusual height (as well as other information on his appearance, like excessive sweating and superhuman strength) as popular stereotyped attributes which do no more than intentionally turn him into a stylized embodiment of the barbarian bandit or emphasize the admiration and aversion that the image of the soldier invoked to the civilian population.
His consistent portrayal as a man with a prominent brow, nose, and jaw, made some researchers to suspect that he may have suffered from overgrowth to some extent in form of acromegaly.
Just some of recently listed authentic ancient
coins and artifacts from a selection of thousands of items::
AEMILIAN ( Aemilianus ) 253AD VERY RARE Ancient Silver Roman Coin Roma i30131
AUGUSTUS Victory Over Brutus and Cassius Philippi Ancient Roman Coin i31345
Vespasian 79AD Silver Ancient Roman Coin Capricorn half goat half fish i32098
GRATIAN 367AD Ancient Roman Coin Chi-Rho CHRIST Monogram Labarum i26241
ELAGABALUS Bisexual Emperor 218AD Ancient Silver Roman Coin SALUS i21810
JULIA MAMAEA Severus Alexander Wife Silver ROMAN Coin Juno Jupiter wife i16313
MARONEIA 168BC Dionysus Bacchus Wine God Real Ancient Silver Greek Coin i28318
JULIA MAMMAEA Roman Empress Nicaea Roman Coin 3 Legionary standards i17605
Roman Republic Anonymous SEXTANS 211BC Sicilian Mint Ancient Coin Mercury i34356
JULIA DOMNA Thessalonica Ancient Roman Coin Hermes w parazonium Temple i24948
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS 193AD Nicopolis ad Istrum Ancient Roman Coin EAGLE i25880
Washington American Revolution Bicentennial HUGE Medal Liberty Tree i32049
JESUS CHRIST Basil II & Constantine VIII 1025AD ClassA2 Byzantine Coin i34594
JESUS CHRIST w GOSPELS 1028AD Rare HUGE Ancient Byzantine Coin CROSS i25162
KINGS of PERSIS 1st Century AD Silver Obol Ancient Coin i32036
Romanus IV, Diogenes 1068AD Ancient Byzantine Coin Christ Virgin Orans i35797
JOHN II Comnenus 1118AD Ancient Rare BYZANTINE Coin JESUS CHRIST i22669
JUSTIN II & Queen Sophia Rare HUGE Authentic Ancient Byzantine Coin i19209
Constantine I the Great ROME CITY COMMEMORATIVE Ancient Roman Coin RARE i36371
Honorius & Theodosius II w Globe between 408AD RARE Ancient Roman Coin i36370
Constantius II Constantine I the Great son Ancient Roman Coin Wreath i36369
CONSTANTIUS II Constantine the Great son Roman Coin Wreath of success i36368
CONSTANTIUS II Constantine the Great son Roman Coin Wreath of success i36367
ARCADIUS 388AD Ancient Roman Coin VICTORY Nike Chi-Rho Christ Monogram i36366
Arcadius 383AD Rare Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Wreath of success i36365
Constans Gay Emperor Constantine the Great son Roman Coin Two Victories i36364
Constans Gay Emperor Constantine the Great son Roman Coin Glory of Army i36363
THEODOSIUS I the Great Ancient Roman Coin VICTORY Nike ANGEL i36362
Valentinian II 388AD Ancient Roman Coin Victory Chi-Rho Christ monogram i36361
Constans Gay Emperor Constantine the Great son Roman Coin Two Victories i36360
Theodosius I the Great Ancient Roman Coin Victory Chi-Rho Christ Monogr i36359
THEODOSIUS II 423AD Ancient Roman Coin VICTORY Nike Chi-Rho Christ monog i36358
GRATIAN 379AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin WREATH of success i36357
CONSTANS Gay Emperor son of Constantine the Great Roman Coin Wreath i36356
Constantine I The Great 330AD Ancient Roman Coin Legion Glory of Army i36355
CONSTANTIUS II Ancient Roman Coin LEGIONS CHI-RHO CHRIST Labarum RARE i36354
CONSTANS Gay Emperor son of Constantine the Great Roman Coin Wreath i36353
Valentinian II 378AD Authentic Ancient Roman Coin Wreath of success i36352
Crispus Constantine the Great son 320AD Ancient Roman Coin Vexillum flag i36351
CONSTANTINE II son of Constantine the Great Ancient Roman Coi Victory i36350
GALLIENUS Valerian I son Roman Coin Centaur Part horse & man Sagittarius i29006
GORDIAN III Ancient Silver Roman Coin "Venus the Victorious" i18016
Parthia Kingdom Pakoros I & Arsakes I 78AD Silver Ancient Islamic Coin i32375
Xerxes Artaxerxes I Lydia Persian Imperial Coinage Silver Ancient coin i32079
CARACALLA 198AD Anchialus CITY GATE Architectural Ancient Roman Coin i23655
Octavian Augustus & Mark Antony 37BC Thessalonica Ancient Roman Coin i35650
Adramytteion Mysia 357BC Ancient Greek Coin ZEUS Pegasus winged horse i33827
Roman Republic Scaurus Bituitus Ancient Silver Coin ROMA HORSE Rare i20153
Julia Domna 196AD Silver Roman Coin Good humor Goddess Caracalla & Geta i30403
GETA 209AD Pautalia Thrace River God HUGE Rare Genuine Ancient Roman Coin i22457
AEMILIAN 253AD DACIA Lion & Eagle Legions VERY RARE Huge Roman Coin i28675
Roman Republic Minucius, Augurinus 134B CIonic Column Togate Silver Coin i22375
TREBONIANUS GALLUS Ancient Roman Coin Viminacium Legion Bull & Lion i30267
ABDERA Thrace 415BC Griffin & Bull Rare Ancient Silver Greek Coin i26489
JULIA DOMNA Caracalla & Geta mother Ancient Silver Roman Coin CYBELE i22966
Birytis in Troas 300BC Ancient Greek Coin Odysseus Ulysses Club RARE i36309
NERO as Apollo Fiddles While Rome Burns Thessaly Roman Coin Greek Region i28371
Dyrrhachium Illyria 208BC Silver Greek Coin Cow Calf Fertility Serpent i30588
JULIA MAMAEA Silver Roman Coin JUNO wife & sister of Jupiter w baby i26756
Herod Archelaus Ethnarch over Judaea, Samaria & Idumaea Jerusalem Coin i36295
GETA sacrificing over ALTAR 205AD QUALITY Ancient Silver Roman Coin i18545
Vespasian 69AD Macedonian mint Large Rare Ancient Roman Coin Shield i28764
GETA 200AD Rare CASTOR Dioscuri Twin w Horse Ancient Silver Roman Coin i33901
AKRAGAS in SICILY 420BC Tetras Eagle, Hare & Crab Ancient Greek Coin i25167
Roman Republic Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus 116BC Ancient Silver Coin Horse i22377
Caligula 37AD Rome mint HUGE Ancient Roman Coin VESTA Home Family RARE i36291
Greek city of Philadelphia 2-1st Century BC Dioscuri Gemini Ancient Coin i34346
Geta w club 200AD Silver Very rare Ancient Roman Coin Trophy Tropaion i31145
ATL Athe Ati Mercenary Tribe Sicily VERY RARE 357BC Ancient Greek Coin i28235
Roman Republic P. Laeca LAW AGAINST CRUEL PUNISHMENT 110BC Silver Coin i18527
NERO 65AD Maeonia in Lydia EPHESIAN ARTEMIS Cult Statue Roman Coin RARE i27514
Roman Republic Musa 66BC Ancient Silver Coin Muse of sacred poetry dance i33898
Antiochus VII Eurgetes Silver Greek Coin under King Ariarathes VII i26044 HUGE
GETA 207AD Rare Silver Ancient Roman Coin Minerva Wisdom Magic Commerce i26680
SEVERUS ALEXANDER 223AD Ancient Silver Roman Coin Nude ZEUS Thunderbolt i18690
ANTIOCHUS I, SOTER Seleucid Possibly Unpublished Ancient Greek Coin i34351 HORSE
Greek city of Rhodes, Islands off Caria 125BC Silver Coin Helios Rose i33590
Helena Mother of Constantine the Great 328AD Ancient Roman Coin Security i30045
VALERIAN I 255AD Ancient Authentic Silver Roman Coin FELICITAS Good Luck i21583
Augustus & Julius Caesar 27BC Authentic Ancient Roman Coin i34009
ANTIOCHOS III 223BC Seluecid Kingdom Apollo Elephant Ancient Greek Coini i33823
RHODES Greek Island off Caria 387BC Rare Ancient Greek Coin ROSE Helios i18496
TIBERIUS adapted son of Augustus Apollonoshieron Ancient Roman Coin Lyre i21869
Probus 281AD Ancient Roman Coin Sol Sun God Horse quadriga Rare i29114
PHILIP V Macedonia 221BC Hercules Flute Rare Ancient Greek Coin i22731
Alexander III the Great 336BC Ancient Greek Coin Hercules Bow Club i30226
VESPASIAN 71AD Ephesus Mint Ceres RARE Ancient Silver Roman Coin i26972
MAGNENTIUS 350AD Lugdunum Ancient Roman Coin Labarum CHI-RHO Christ i20948
ANTONINUS PIUS & MARCUS AURELIUS as CAESAR Ancient Silver Roman Coin Rare i29457
FAUSTINA II Marcus Aurelius Wife HUGE Rare Ancient Roman Coin Fertility i16811
VALERIAN I 253AD Antioch Syria TYCHE TEMPLE Ancient Roman Coin Rare i20011
GALLIENUS Son of Valerian I Alexandria in Egypt Eagle Ancient Roman Coin i36287
Authentic Lead Stamp circa 1850-1900 AD "CASH VALUE" Artifact i19568
AUGUSTUS Posthumous Issue under Tiberius Ancient Roman Coin Altar i33830
LUCIUS VERUS co-emperor of Marcus Aurelius Very rare Ancient Roman Coin i27515
Augustus 27BC Amphipolis Macedon Rare Ancient Roman Coin Artemis Bull i30611
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS Medallic Huge Ancient Roman Coin ANTIOCH MÃªn MOON GOD i22868
Severus Alexander Nicaea in Bythinia Roman Coin 3 legionary Standards i22625
TIBERIUS Adapted son of Augustus ARTEMIS on Bull Ancient Roman Coin i24624
Click here to View more from my Store >