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Severus II Roman Emperor 306-307 A.D. Biography as Read By World-Renowned Numismatic Coin Dealer and Best Place to Buy Ancient Coins

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Severus was of humble birth, born in the Illyrian provinces around the middle of the third century AD. He rose to become a senior officer in the Roman army, and as an old friend of Galerius, that emperor ordered that Severus be appointed Caesar of the Western Roman Empire, a post that he succeeded to on 1 May 305. He thus served as deputy-emperor to Constantius I (Constantius Chlorus), Augustus of the western half of empire.

 


 
 Example of Authentic Ancient Coin of:

Severus II - Roman Emperor : 306-307 A.D.
Bronze Quarter Follis Siscia mint: 305-306 A.D.
Reference: RIC 170a
FLVALSEVERVSNOBC - Laureate head right.
GENIOPOPVLIROMANI Exe: SIS - Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.

* Numismatic Note: Very rare, possibly unpublished type with no legend matching this one in several online databases.

The Genius is the 'power' which is inherent in man, not only becoming manifest in his virility but signifying extensively his whole personality. The Genius is neither 'soul' nor 'life'. It's particular to each one and ceased with his death. It is a kind of active principle which could be found too in collectives like troop units, councils and so on. It is assigned too to localities like provinces or cities. Power and prestige of the pater familias explain that the domestics worshipped his Genius and swore by him. The oath by the Genius of the emperor became common in private and public fields. False oath was a crime against the emperor. The concept of the Genius Augusti was the possibility to assign divine attributes to the emperor without making him a god directly which was frowned especially in the western part of the Empire!

The need for protection resulted in the idea of the Genius as protection spirit, but it was never clear whether he was immanent to men or has his own existence. In later times these ideas were mixed with the conception of the soul which could be found in grave inscriptions. The conception of the Genius as sum of the personality expanded to the idea of the Genius of a god: Genius Iovi. This required the conception of a full personalized deity.  
 
Meaningful is the Genius Populi Romani which is not only the Roman interpretation of the Greek City deity Tyche. On October 9 the festival of the Genius Publicus was celebrated. The later snake shape was an amalgamation with the well-known incarnation and soul conception. The Genius indeed was linked to a person but not identical with him. Life arises 'by appearing of the Genius', who then obtained it continually. We can see that the ancient world had difficulties with the interpretation of the Genius. But worshipping of the Genius was alive until the beginning of Christianity.

Flavius Valerius Severus (or rarely Severus II) (died February 307) was a Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 307 (1 May 305 – summer 306 (as Caesar in the west under Constantius Chlorus);
summer 306 – March or April 307 (as Augustus in the west, in competition with Constantine, Maxentius, and Maximian).

Severus was of humble birth, born in the Illyrian provinces around the middle of the third century AD. He rose to become a senior officer in the Roman army, and as an old friend of Galerius, that emperor ordered that Severus be appointed Caesar of the Western Roman Empire, a post that he succeeded to on 1 May 305. He thus served as deputy-emperor to Constantius I (Constantius Chlorus), Augustus of the western half of empire.

On the death of Constantius I in the summer of 306, Severus was promoted to Augustus by Galerius himself, in opposition to the acclamation of Constantine I (Constantius' son) by his own soldiers. When Maxentius, the son of the retired emperor Maximian, revolted at Rome, Galerius sent Severus to suppress the rebellion. Severus moved from his capital, Mediolanum, towards Rome, at the head of an army previously commanded by Maximian. Fearing the arrival of Severus, Maxentius offered Maximian the co-rule of the empire. Maximian accepted, and when Severus arrived under the walls of Rome and besieged it, his men deserted him and passed to Maximian, their old commander. Severus fled to Ravenna, an impregnable position: Maximian offered to spare his life and treat him humanely if the latter surrendered peaceably, which he did in March or April 307. Despite Maximian's assurance, Severus was nonetheless displayed as a captive and later imprisoned at Tres Tabernae. When Galerius himself invaded Italy to suppress Maxentius and Maximian, the former ordered Severus's death: he was executed (or forced to commit suicide) on 16 February 307.

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